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Legionella The hidden danger

Legionella The hidden danger

  Legionella bacteria may be present in any drinking water, because this type of water is not sterile. They can survive in water temperatures below 20° C, but cannot proliferate. Infection in humans occurs when water droplets contaminated with Legionella are inhaled, or when water containing Legionella accidentally enters the trachea. You can find out more about Legionella here – where it comes from, who is at risk, and how to safeguard against infection.
BWT can provide the following solutions for disinfecting drinking water:

What is Legionella?

There are more than 40 different types of Legionella bacteria and over 60 serologically distinct groups have been identified to date. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is mainly responsible for infections in humans. 

There are two types of disease:
•    Legionnaires’ disease or Legionellosis is a severe form of pneumonia which, when treated early enough, has a mortality rate of 20%, but this rises to 80% if left untreated.
•    Pontiac fever has symptoms similar to ‘summer flu’ and does not require hospitalization.
Where does Legionella occur?
As drinking water is not sterile, Legionella can occur in any type of drinking water. The bacteria can survive in water temperatures below 20° C, but cannot proliferate.
Conditions for proliferation:
•    Water temperatures of 20° C-50° C and a pH value of 5.0-8.5. Optimum conditions for proliferation are water temperatures of between 35° C and 45° C.
•    Biofilms in pipe systems: Legionella are absorbed into the biofilms of protozoa, i.e. amoeba, and multiply by an intra-cellular process. Other microorganisms that live in biofilms provide vital nutrients to sustain the Legionella.
•    A supply of nutrients such as hardness components (Ca2+, Mg2+), iron compounds (corrosion products) and organic substances, i.e. amino acids (cysteine).
•    Hot water installations are at particular risk.
Who is at risk?
Basically, anyone can become infected with Legionella, but the following groups are at greater risk:
 Individuals under stress
      • People travelling
•    Older individuals (50+ years old )
•    People suffering from an illness, particularly those infected with HIV, who have had organ transplants or are receiving chemotherapy
•    Heavy smokers
•    People with high alcohol consumption
•    People which chronic pulmonary ailments
How can it be prevented?
Construction, operational and procedural measures must be taken in the planning, implementation, operation and maintenance of drinking water systems to prevent the growth of Legionella. This includes taking account of the quality of the drinking water supplied and the installation, operation and maintenance of the water treatment systems that serve to protect the installations from sludging, lime scale deposits and corrosion.
BWT offers a range of water treatment products and processes for the control and prevention of Legionella:
•    Particle protection

•    Filtration of the drinking water is both standard and necessary in drinking water installations to inhibit the proliferation of Legionella. Users can therefore prevent the sludging of boilers and pipes and pitting corrosion.
Lime scale protection
Lime scale deposits can lead to increased roughness on the interior of pipe surfaces on which the biofilms develop and where the Legionella can multiply. Legionella also need calcium and magnesium ions as nutrients, and so the formation of biofilm and the nutrients that sustain the Legionella can be minimized by implementing lime scale protection systems.
Corrosion prevention
Corrosion can lead to deterioration in the cleanliness of drinking water and increases the roughness of the interior pipe surface that encourage the development of biofilms. The iron compounds produced by corrosion are also important nutrients for Legionella. The dosing of agents that prevent corrosion, or alternative corrosion protection, can prevent particle and lime scale formation and also inhibit the growth of Legionella.



Product information
•    4 operating modes available
•    Step motor drive with accumulator
•    Simple dosing of gaseous media

A diaphragm dosing pump with step motor drive and ‘accumulator’. The pump cabinet is made of Noryl, the pump head of PTFE, PTFE-laminated elastomer diaphragm with fabric lining, the O-ring EPDM. Power is supplied via a cable connecter with a 1.5m lead. Dosage capacity can be adjusted as required via the display and keyboard. The dosing pump has a range of switching and control options, i.e. contact water meter, current controller, encoder, switching contact.

Main features:
•    Control using contact water meter, current controller, encoder, switching contact
•    Simple dosing of gaseous media using a volume-maximized suction stroke
•    Connection for signaling when empty and dry-run protection with visual display
•    ACS connection

BWT Bewades N

BWT Bewades N

Product information
•    UV disinfection systems for disinfecting potable and non-potable water
•    Includes UVC sensors
•    System monitoring and control using microprocessor controls
•    DVGW, ÖNORM (standards) certification
•    UV disinfections systems are used where a high level of microbiological purity is required and where, for quality or environmental reasons, the use of chemical disinfectants is not permitted:

The BWT Bewades UV disinfection process will have no effect on the:
•    Water hardness
•    pH value
•    Taste
•    Smell
•    Color of the treated water.

What is UV disinfection?
Disinfection generally means a reduction of around 99.999% of the pathogens present in the water. A dosage level of 400 J/m² is required to achieve this level of disinfection. The operational settings of the Bewades systems are calculated using numerical computer simulation, guaranteeing a UV dosage of at least 400 J/m². This dosage level has been biodosimetrically proved in the ‘N’ range systems and certified in accordance with ÖNORM M5873-1.
The number of UV disinfection systems installed is growing steadily and this ecologically-sound process is being used in an increasing range of applications owing to its extensive functionality and ease of use.

BWT Bewades® N – environmentally friendly UV disinfection systems
Bewades® N systems are installed where certified systems (e.g. DVGW Worksheet W294, ÖNORM M 5873-1) are required. The system consists of a stainless steel irradiation chamber with an integrated turbolator designed to achieve the most uniform irradiation possible of the fluid. The UV radiators are housed in quartz safety tubes.

Monitoring and control of the system are carried out by modern, processor-controlled electronics, while a UVC sensor constantly monitors the UV irradiation level. In addition, each radiator is monitored individually by the operating current and an alert is triggered if the UVC output falls below the pre-set warning threshold. In the event of radiator failure, i.e. if UVC output falls below the UVC output threshold, the optional shut-off valve is closed, generating an ACS (automated control system) message.

An optional flushing valve can also be integrated. An optional flow monitor can be connected to the electronics to carry out regular flushing on systems where longer stagnation periods occur during which no water is flushed through. The UV is monitored by a standardized UVC sensor. A 0/4–20 mA output is available for viewing remote readings of the UVC output. The system can be activated remotely via a potential-free contact.

The BWT Bewades® N systems are available in 4 different models and sizes:
•    BWT Bewades® 80W80/11N: nominal flow 3.7 m³/h*
•    BWT Bewades® 200W200/11N: nominal flow 7.9 m³/h*
•    BWT Bewades® 390W130/22N: nominal flow 21 m³/h*
•    BWT Bewades® 600W200/22N: nominal flow 52 m³/h*
*Data with 70% transmission/10cm and a dosage of 40 mJ/cm²

BWT PairOx

    BWT PairOx
Product information
•    Chemical-free disinfection of the circulating water of room and air conditioning systems
•    Biofilm broken down through the addition of ozone
•    Cost-effective and environmentally friendly

BWT Bewades® PairOx − chemical-free disinfection of the circulating water of room and air conditioning systems
The BWT PairOx systems are used in ventilation systems for disinfecting circulating water and for the automated conductivity-controlled regulation of the salt content in the circulating water. The PairOx process provides safe, cost-effective disinfection without the use of chemicals.

In this process, the circulating humidification water is disinfected using UV irradiation and added ozone. Any Legionella and other bacteria present in the water are killed in the humidification water. The addition of ozone breaks down the biofilm on the walls and internal structures of the HVAC system. The advantage of the PairOx process is that no toxic chemicals are released into the room air, as the ozone decomposes into oxygen, so the HVAC system operators do not handle any chemical substances.

A turnkey disinfection and desalination system with integrated circulation pumps mounted with all the fittings and shut-off devices on a coated steel frame. The system is incorporated into the air washer circuit. An ozone-air mixture is introduced into the circulating humidification water by injection after the humidification water has passed through the UV reactor. Any pathogens present in the water are neutralized and any extraneous water components are oxidized.

Behind the UV system is a flame-resistant sampling tap that controls the disinfection level. The UV system consists of a stainless steel irradiation chamber where the UV radiator is housed inside a quartz safety tube. The UV system is monitored and controlled using processor-controlled electronics, and the system is continuously monitored by a UVC sensor. An alert is triggered if the UVC output falls below the pre-set threshold. In the event of a radiator failure or if the UVC output falls below the threshold, the feed pump is shut down, generating an ACS (automated control system) message.

The conductivity of the circulating water is constantly measured using the integrated conductivity probe. A time delay is triggered if the conductivity of the circulating water exceeds the upper threshold; the desalination valve will open if conductivity remains above this value. The system has a flow meter for water and one for air, to set the optimum operating conditions precisely. The minimum flow-rate value can also be set on the water flow meter and, if the flow falls below this value, the feed pump and the UV system are shut down (dry run protection). The system can also be equipped with a waste water meter. The UV system controls and automatic desalination system are housed in the same control cabinet. The system can be operated in manual or automatic mode.

BWT Bewades® PairOx systems are available in the 2.5 model with a pump capacity of 2.5 m³/h and in the 5 model with a pump capacity of 10 m³/h (each at 2.5 bar).
The respective dimensions of the two systems and further technical information can be found in the technical specs sheet.

BWT Reaxan

BWT Reaxan

Product information
•    Continuous disinfection of hot and cold water systems
•    Disinfection capacity can be documented
•    Effective long-term protection using chlorine dioxide which keeps the entire installation free of bacteria

Water is generally used at irregular intervals in buildings with extensive pipe systems, e.g. in hospitals, nursing homes, schools and hotels and other leisure centres. It may sometimes have been ‘standing’ in pipes for a long time during “stagnation periods”. During stagnation, bacteria proliferate in the pipe systems, potentially leading to increased health risks from, for example, Legionella. The BWT Reaxan chlorine dioxide system is your guarantee of the safest and most hygienic water.

BWT Reaxan – the highest standards of hygiene
The BWT Reaxan systems release chlorine dioxide into the hot or cold water system continuously to ensure that the water is safe and clean. Compared to chlorine, chlorine dioxide offers more effective long-term protection (depot effect), and therefore keeps the entire installation free of bacteria over a substantial period of time.

The BWT Reaxan systems can also enable the disinfection capacity to be documented throughout the whole system, thereby providing maximum safety for operators and consumers alike. The BWT Reaxan process is an ideal solution for systems with a tendency to recontamination or for potable water systems where the cold water system is already contaminated.

A range of BWT Reaxan models is available in the following dosage capacities:
•    5 ClO2 > Reaxan 5
•    10 ClO2 > Reaxan 10
•    20 ClO2 > Reaxan 20
•    45 ClO2 > Reaxan 45
•    120 ClO2 > Reaxan 120